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Beauty trends - The history of the nail art, the nail varnish

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26 August 2013
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Once upon a time there was the nail enamel ...

In 1800 the fashion trend is with the short nails, slightly in the form of almond. They are coloured from time to time thanks to some sweet-scented red oil and brilliance is brought by rubbing nails with small leather handkerchiefs.

In 1830 In Europe, a doctor called Sitts has the idea of diverting the ancestor of our dental floss, in the past wooden sticks of orange, and of using it to push back cuticles. A blessing, because at that time cuticles are pushed back with scissors, or any tool in metal, or taken away with the acid!

In 1892 The niece of the doctor Sitts makes the practice of her uncle internationally known. Tendency spreads up to the United States, where manicurist's salons for the women of all classes open.

In 1900 nails are cut with scissors in metal, and filed with files, in metal also. To give them a little of brilliance, the people of the epoch coloured them slightly with a cream or a powder. They have already been in some terms with colouring of the nail, the ancestor of our current varnish, because these preparations were affixed with a brush in camel's hair, but colouring lasted only the time of day.

In 1910 The firm " Flowery Manicure Products" comes to New York. It produces metallic nail files, and invents others among which the famous "Emery Board", this lengthened pasteboard file, covered with the paper émeri, inevitable rough for every manicurist nowadays.

In 1914 Anna Kindred du Dakota du nord gets a patent for her varnish for nail protection. 

In 1917 An advertising appeared in the American Vogue of that time declaring "cut no more your cuticles" and offers "Simplex Methode": a manicurist's tool as they are known today. The fashion of the bright nails entices more and more women and establishes itself little by little as a norm.

In 1920 The stars of the cinema from the epoch sported a "childish" make-up: big eyes, a broad mouth, a small nose. Effect was still accentuated with a short haircut. For nails, still no true varnish within sight, but car industry is booming and already makes spectacular advances in varnish.

In 1925 At that time, it is still badly seen that the women sport showy colours, the famous "tag ". A transparent pinkish red varnish makes its apparution however on the market. It is carried only in the middle of the nail, the base and the end of nails remain natural. Beatrice Kaye is a representative for the manicurist within MGM in the twenties and 30s, and she illustrates the stage of the "mancure-moon". Cuticles are withdrawn, and the nail no longer is sharpened to a point. The varnish is applied except to the base. Sometimes, the end of the nail is it either not varnished. 

In 1930 Hollywood sees being born the legendary stars of THE big screen as Jean Harlow, Gloria Swanson or Rita Heyworth and these will be the engine of a new tendency: the nail enamel makes its coming-out finally. Its look is more and more worked, elegant, the "mancure-moon" is visited again via shades of red more marked. Gena Laboratories perfects a solvent, an oil for nails and one pushes back cuticles.

In 1932 Charles Revson accompanied with his brother Joseph, chemist, perfects with the help of Charles Lachman a nail enamel in intense colour and covering. It is not fabricated from colouring agents but from a new technology of pigments, which dissolves better and allows one more wide range of colours. The brand Revlon was born. The brand perfects tonalities of red going of the pale red in Tyrian purple. The brand develops for the 1st time in the thirties the tendency to match lipstick and nail enamel.

1934 Anna Hamburg de Californie patents an artificial, easy colour to be applied and to be taken away, and which does not harm the nail. Maxwell Lappe, a dentist of Chicago, invents "Nu Nails", artificelle manicurist for those who gnaw nails.

In 1937 Harriet Fliegenbaum du Minnesota receives a patent for the nail articiel, perfected to recreate the end of the nail or to lengthen it.

In 1940 Rita Hayworth perfects for a very new look: the long red nails are filed in oval and entirely varnished. Finished the natural base of the nail! Strong colours make their appearance in shops, as for example "Schoolhouse Red" of Elizabeth Arden, who cost 0,75 cents in the past. 

In 1945 At the end of war, make-up finds its legitimacy, and nails will not be in rest, with either only of the red but also the pink and a broad fan of colours. Max Factor creates for example its Satin Smooth Nail Polish.

In 1950 The world of the nail enamel does not cease being bedecked with new colours, and tendencies in manicurist succeed one another: darker colours, pointed forms of nails or more natural looks in nudes colours and oval forms. In the fifties appear the manicurist's first lessons, the ancestors of our manucure salons. The brand Revlon offers in this direction a training kit with a basic equipment with the aim of professional manicurists.

1957 Thomases Slack receives a patent for its model, which is situated underneath the top of the nail and that helps the cosmetician to lengthen the natural nail with some acrylic. This method is called "Pattinail" and will be produced and will be commercialised by Thomas Slack under this appellation. 

In 1970 The centenary of the artificial nail is definitely begun. Nails in acrylic and in frost are much more flexible there from now on and are easy to hit. It becomes difficult to be able to differentiate them of natural nails. Tendency is with the nail filed straight and request is nice and very present. The techniques of manicurist do not cease advancing and the more and more long nails meet a strong popularity. In the United States, they are even considered as sexy.

In 1972 Appearance of metallic varnishes: blue, green they include pailletées particles and from their entrance on the market, it is the immediate cardboard. The culture of more daring colours for hands and feet in summer develops so.

In 1980 The acrylic gives its turn up in the glass fiber, which establishes itself as THE technology of the instant. Pastes and other accessories make their appearance also on the manicurists. Manicurist's competitions are organised and manicurist's job settles progressively.

In 1990 This new decade is brewing under the sign of creativity thanks to Margaret Astor, who perfects a fountain pen of varnish. The brand Manhattan also invents the first "sweet-scented nail enamel": several scents are available as the red fruits, the vanilla or the lilac. 

1991 Worked out based on water, the peel-off varnish of mark Manhattan has a length about 2 days.

In 1995 Year of legendary film " Pulp Fiction " with Uma Thurman, where this one carries the "Black Red" of Chanel, lauched the same year. 

In 2000 It is the boom of the french manicure. It establishes itself as a norm all over her natural and discreet return.

In 2009 During Parisian Fashion Week, Karl Lagerfeld grants the varnish in runways and opens the way to colour "407 nephrite", green one apple. Armani counter-attacks with the varnish " greige ", mixture of grey and of beige, which becomes THE colour 2010, joined later with the célébre "505 Particular" of Chanel, combining purple and grey.

In 2011 alessandro, with his Lake Feeling, throws the 1st nail enamel capable of holding until 3 weeks and having same resistance as frost UV. He settles as a standart varnish and dries in barely 60 seconds under a lamp UV.

Source text: beautypress.fr